It is first important to provide definitions in order to understand this subject in detail.
The unit to measure blood pressure is in mmHg (millimeters of mercury)
Normal blood pressure by definition is a SBP of < or = to 120 mmHg over a DBP of < or = 80 mm HG.
Pre-hypertension is by definition a SBP of 120-139 mmHg over a DBP of 80-89 mmHg. This is a warning sign that you may be at risk of developing hypertension leading into our next definition to understand this subject.
Hypertension or elevated blood pressure is by definition of a SBP of > or = 140 mmHg over a DBP of > or = 90 mmHg.
Hypertension can be broken down into 2 categories-Stage I and stage II hypertension.
As per the JNC guidelines, stage I is defined as a SBP of 140-159 mmHg over a DBP of 90-99 mmHg.
Stage II is defined as a SBP of > or = 160 mmHg over a DBP of > or = 100 mmHg.
Elevated blood pressure problems can occur as a result of certain risk factors including being overweight or obese, hereditary causes, smoking, increased salt intake, hardening of blood vessels, kidney problems, aging, among other myriads of reasons.
Uncontrolled blood pressure can lead to symptoms including headache, vision changes, chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, swelling of feet for example.
The consequences of living with high blood pressure include kidney failure, stroke, heart attack, and other complications making it important to take control of this problem once it has begun as well as to prevent from occurring at the start by a healthier lifestyle.
Things a person may do to stop from development of hypertension problems, includes limiting ones salt intake to no more than 2300 mg daily, exercising regularly, maintaining healthy weight for your height, avoiding or stopping smoking, etc..
If hypertension has developed, then it is of importance to visit your primary care provider to implement a plan of action to facilitate lifestyle changes in some but not all situations before advanced treatments can be opted such being prescribed medicines that can help lower ones blood pressure.
Take control of your lifestyle. Take control your blood pressure for the long-term benefit of prevention of complications.